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educational wastage

  • OKUNADE JOSEPH
    1.17k views; Posted on August 5, 2017

    INTRODUCTION

    Education globally has been given adequate attention with many countries contributing much investment to promote the awareness of political and socio-economic development of individuals and the nation as a whole. The expectation of all concerned is that students within any school setting should stay for the minimum number of years expected for that level of education within the school system. Nigeria educational system is financed from both tax money collectable and allocation from the Federal Government revenue, although each tier of government has power over specific areas of taxing fields. The federal, state and local government, out of the revenue generated, allocated some amounts to education for sustainability. Education is viewed as a good investment for national development. Hence, between 7.6 % and 9.9 % of annual expenditure is devoted to education by Nigeria government. Secondary education is meant for children between the ages of 11 and 16 years. This level of education started in Nigeria as far back as 1859 with the founding of Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) Grammar School in Lagos and later with the establishment of secondary schools in other parts of the country including Abeokuta, Calabar, Ibadan, Ijebu-Ode, and Ondo (Taiwo, 1983). Secondary education is the second tier of Nigerian educational system. The measurement of its performance must be viewed in terms of its stated objectives in the National Policy on Education.

    While the broad aims of secondary education are: preparing for useful living within the society and, preparation for higher education (National Policy on Education (NPE), 2013 revised), the objectives are: 1. To provide an increasing number of primary school pupils with an opportunity for education of a higher quality irrespective of sex or social, religious and ethnic background 2. To diversify its curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and roles possessed by or open to students after their secondary course; 3. To equip students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology; 4. To develop and project Nigerian culture, arts and languages as well as the world’s cultural heritage; 5 To raise a generation of people which can think for themselves, respect the view and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labor and appreciate those values specified under our broad national aim and live as good citizens; 6. To foster Nigerian unity with an emphasis on the common ties that unite her in diversity; 7. To inspire students with a desire for achievement and self-improvement both at school and later in life (NPE, 2013). Recent happenings in our secondary schools in Nigeria reveal that there are some elements of inefficiency in the school system as there is a gap between the expectancy and the actual output. Inefficiency of an educational system constitutes a sort of waste to the system (Nwankwo, 1981). The act by which a student repeats a class and spends seven (7) years instead of the six (6) student-year, implies an additional cost to the government and other duty bearers. Apart from this, the most devastating of all is for those students that completed the secondary schooling but failed to gain admission into the tertiary level. Some students drop out of the system before completion year.

    All these are termed as wastages within the system. The poor quality and inefficient conditions of our secondary schools were affirmed by Yusuf and Sofoluwe (2014), and Obemeata (1995), as they all agreed that only a small proportion of secondary school products are qualified to enter the university in Nigeria. Also, Adeoye (1983) lamented on the outcry by parents and media over the decline in standards of operation of our educational system leading to the poor quality of student performance in West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO), and Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations (SSCE). What follow are their subsequent inability to secure gainful employment and admission into tertiary institutions at the completion of secondary schooling despite huge amount of resources invested into the educational system. Therefore, the purpose of this study to examine and analyze educational wastage in public secondary schools with particular reference to Olorunda Local Government Area (LGA) of Osun state, Nigeria.

     

    WASTAGE CONCEPT AND OVERVIEW OF CAUSES IN NIGERIA

    Ordinarily, education managers are supposed to make use of the limited resources available them to achieve the education objectives. They are thus not expected to utilize more resources above the allocated ones. If the resources used to accomplish education objectives are more than those allocated for these, it implies that there is wastage in the education system. According to UNESCO (1976), wastage in education can be described as pupil/student’s attrition and grade repetition. While attrition is the withdrawal of pupil/student from school, repetition is a situation where a pupil/student remains in the same class in subsequent year, has to be taught the same thing using the same facilities and other resources. It is worthy to note that when a pupil/student withdraws from school, the cost of his/her education up to that level would be wasted. Such pupil/student will relapse into illiteracy. A pupil/student that repeats class takes up space, teaching time, textbooks, and other resources that could be devoted to other pupils/students. When many pupils/students repeat classes, some classes are abnormally large thus making teaching difficult for the teachers. It is also of note that in Nigeria, normal year to be spent on primary education is six (6) years and six also in the case of secondary school. A pupil/student that spends more than the normal years is deemed to have over-utilised resources, both financial, human, and materials. Educational wastage can thus be viewed as the aspect of educational activities that leads to wasteful utilization of scarce educational resources.

    Wastage in education system can be attributed to institutional and non-institutional factors. Institutional factors have their origin within the educational institutions. Beeby (1969); Martinez & Monday (1998); Adeyemi & Ajayi (2006) identified teacher’s quality and quantity, method of teaching, attitude and commitment, school’s learning environment, teacher-pupil/student ratio, unstable school calendar, lack of school guidance, as well as counseling services as institutional variables that account for wastage in education system. The non-institutional factors are outside the purview of educational institutions and encompasses the family and community life and have to do with attitude, economic circumstances, migration (Callaway, 1967), and home background, distance from school, cultural practice, religious doctrine, and poverty of parents (Adesina, 1983).

     

    What is Educational Wastage?

    According to Hornby (2001), wastage means the act of losing or destroying something, especially when it has been used or dealt with carelessly. Hence wastage in education connotes inefficiency in the use of educational resources by school administrators. In other words, poor relationship of educational inputs with outputs is wastage. Educational output invariably determines shape of the national development. Education wastage engenders negative performance or outcomes. Obviously, education

    wastage is clearly seen in the following negative attitudes: students’ drop-out; carryover of courses because of students’ inability to perform as expected, hence failure to achieve; unemployment for graduates; employment without success in the area of work; brain-drain and poor utilization of educational resources such as personnel, time, physical, material and financial resources among others.

     

    Regenerate

    To regenerate is a process; a process of reforming a condition that is not favorable to a particular situation. A situation of giving new strength or life to something in order to restore lost qualities of that thing/process/condition and to make it to become better and/or grow again. If education input, process or output is used or dealt with carelessly, the quality/standard will be lost, hence its regeneration becomes

    imperative if national development would be achieved

     

     

     

    National Development

    Development is growth plus change; that is development incorporates both growth and change. Thus education through its various processes is instrumental to any national development. National development refers to the growth, changes and improvements occurring in a given economy with the aim of promoting the quality of life among the populace (Salawu, 2006). According to Emenike (2009), the essence of a university degree is to position the holder to look beyond his environment and determine to make it better. By implication, higher education endows the graduates with the wherewithal to advantageously, explore, exploit and utilize natural resources in order to meet the human needs for food, health, shelter, clothing, education, security, energy, communication etc. When these needs and more are provided satisfactorily to the citizens then, it is development. In other words, national development is a process which can only be achieved when higher education level is regenerated through drastic wastage-reduction. By so doing, it will engender mastery of relevant job skills and expertise in school and consequently a better structured society; higher capital income and higher standard of living.

     

                 

     

     

    Need to Reduce Educational Wastage (REW) in Order to Regenerate Nigeria Higher Education for National Development.

    It is high time wastage in education is reduced to the barest minimum in Nigeria if she wants to join in the race for globalization of education; keep abreast of the innovations and reforms going on in the globe today in order to fast track national development. Nicholas (2005) noted that higher education is no longer a consumption good enjoyed by only the elite and their siblings, but it is an important element in

    national economic performance and a major determinant of a person’s life chances. There is a great need to REW in Nigeria because of the relevance of education to the individual, economic growth and national development.

    Reduced education wastage improves and sustains teaching and learning quality and hence generates new ideas and information essential for the development of human capital which serves as key engines for market productivity, cohesion of nations and academic growth (Olowo and Edetanlen, 2008). Invariably, quality teaching and learning equip the student with the required skills, knowledge and values to be used in tapping the nation’s physical and material resources, which generate wealth and also, bring about economic growth and development. With reduced education wastage, more citizens would have access to education, hence literacy level will increase. When more people are literate and enlightened,

    economic and national development will accelerate hence students are equipped with the skills that will translate into productivity.

    Reduced education wastage in higher education translates into greater earnings for the individual graduate over time. Obviously, a society with quality higher education has lower level of drop outs, infertility and infant mortality; longer life expectancy as well as addresses gender equity issues in development (improved political participation, social justice, technological growth and overall development of the society). By implication, reduced education wastage would reduce immigration of the Nigerian youths to other countries; draining the much needed labor force; students would stay in schools, learn effectively, be exposed to different ways of self-employment and empowerment strategies without interruption. Students would also graduate as functional citizens; able to handle serious work assignments and escape from dull and unpleasant jobs.

    Reduced education wastage would reduce examination malpractice and incidence of cultism and as well engender discipline, sound moral character and inculcate the right social norms in the students, hence sound and quality output as well as ensure relevance of the graduates to the manpower needs of the economy. In higher level of education, wastage of available funds, personnel, physical and material resources are due to poor utilization and they truncate affairs. Finally to promote and sustain national development in Nigeria, the fast track is to drastically challenge wastage in the higher education level and embrace efficiency in the management and administration of the available resources in the higher education level. That is to say, rationing out the available educational resources without waste would effect achievement of maximum production of such required school graduates in the most desirable strategy, and they would essentially be skilled for maximum exploitation of economic resources for national development.

     

    Causes of Educational Wastage

    Despite the deteriorating nature of education in all levels of education in Nigeria and especially, the almost perennial inadequate achievement of educational goals in the TLE, resources are still wasted due to a number of reasons. Leaning heavily on the thoughts of Arinze in Salawu (2006); causes of education wastage are grouped into three:

     

    i. The nature of educational inputs;

    ii. The nature of processing;

    iii. The nature of outputs.

     

    1. The Causes of Education Wastage due to the Nature of Educational Inputs Include:

    (a) The nature and ability of students.

    (b) The nature and types of educational resources,

    (c) The goals of the educational system, and

    (d) The nature of the content (curriculum).

     

    On the nature and ability of students, one aspect of manifestation is drop-out and carry over of courses in Nigeria higher education system. There are cases of dropouts in primary schools, secondary schools and higher institutions. The main reasons for drop-outs are ill-health and death, truancy, financial difficulty or poverty, parents’ wish, sometimes students fall sick during their academic career and the ill-health may be serious that they cannot continue with their education. Some even die in the process. Some students also enroll into a programme, but habitually absent themselves from lessons or lectures. In some cases, they abandon the programme. Some students face financial problems due to the socio-economic background of their parents or guardians. There are also students who have learning difficulties. They find it difficult to grasp what is taught. Sometimes they waste four to five years in the university without

    passing any course.

    In the area of nature and type of educational resources, which include teachers, equipment and facilities available for education, many higher schools, particularly, those in the rural areas of the country, lack sufficient equipment for practice in science subjects, especially. Some schools in those areas and even in the urban areas lack dedicated mathematics, vocational and science course teachers; facilities like lecture and examination halls and almost all the successive governments are not helping matters, hence the usual statement “lack of funds”. In a situation like this, every educational-minded person wonders how Nigeria can effectively join other nations in the race to achieve education Millennium Development Goals especially, with poor education resources.

    The nature of the goals of the educational system is also another cause of education wastage. It has been observed that where goals of the educational system are practical-oriented and practically implemented, the products are gainfully employed on graduation. In practice, most often, emphasize is merely laid on literacy and general education, thus, most of the products become unemployed and unemployables as obtained today in Nigeria.

    The nature of the content of the curriculum could also be a cause of education wastage. In a situation where the content of the curriculum consists of English language, History, Christian or Islamic Religious Knowledge, Music, Geography, Igbo Language and French, the product of that school may graduate without any type of hope, especially in this era of practical and science-oriented education. In Nigeria, today, masons, mechanics, electricians, welders etc are in short supply, yet, there is unemployment being observed with respect to many graduates of Nigerian higher education. The reason for this situation is not far fetched. There is scarcity of skilled labour because the Nigerian education system scarcely emphasizes vocational and technical skills because there are no relevant resources to that effect due to education wastage, hence poor quality of education. Nigerian higher education needs to be

    regenerated if Nigeria would achieve national development.

     

    2. The Causes of Education Wastage due to the Nature of Processing

    The causes of education wastage could be process-based; for instance in administration or management, examination or certificate system. The nature of administration or management of the school system could be faulty in the sense that the administrator may be autocratic or high-handed. It could be that the administrator may be ignorant of the work to do. It could also be a non-challant administrator, who allows everything to go its own way without making any effort to put things right. Education wastage could be caused by the nature of the examination system where emphasis is laid on one-shot examination instead of continuous assessment as recommended in the national policy on education (FRN, 2004). Sometimes, education at this level is not related to the overall societal needs; also modern educational techniques to encourage acquisition of relevant knowledge and skills are not used in the process of teaching and learning. There are also students who have learning difficulties based on the teaching methods the teacher employed in delivering the instruction.

     

    3. The Causes of EW due to the Nature of Educational Outputs

    In the Nigerian educational system, the nature of the outputs could also cause education wastage. It could be that the graduates from the educational system do not possess the required skills due to the fact that the higher institution did not conform to the initial objectives hence, the graduates find it difficult to fit into the world of work. Somebody who studied literacy subjects, for instance, may not fit in very well in a computer-literate society of today. The graduates may not be fully employed, or it could be that they have not acquired the changes and thoughts desired by the larger society. Nwadiani (2000) calls them victims of unemployment as a result of what he called ‘compulsory miseducation’.

     

    Other Causes of Education Wastage Include

    Frequent strikes by students and the teachers, which disrupt academic activities is another cause of education wastage. Consequently, some students drop out of school when they think their time is being wasted. Some of these drop-outs oftentimes end up as touts in one organization or the other or even waste their lives as criminals, drug addicts, thieves or political thugs. It is no wonder that during the just concluded Anambra State gubernatorial election precisely, on the 16th of November, 2013, many youths; especially, students were readily available due to the present ASUU strike and they were used to disrupt and maneuver election activities in the state.

     

    Another cause of education wastage is the poor condition of service of teachers and the school administrators. Where the teachers and the school administrators do not enjoy personal needs’ satisfaction, security or social status from their job the tendency for them to look else where for a greener pasture is high. Consequent upon this, education of the youths is left to suffer, as the students are taught mainly by part-time lecturers, resulting to underdevelopment of the national socio-economic sector. Based

    on this, some students would graduate ‘half-baked’ without the desired skills and attitudes for better living in the society.

    Brain drain, irregular and poor supervision of school activities and facilities, and incessant transfer of teachers especially in the primary and secondary levels of education cause education wastage.

    Appointment to most of the positions in higher institutions are sometimes politically-motivated, hence mediocre staff are appointed to manage affairs though, inefficiently and as a result education processes and resources are wasted and consequently, poor goal achievement.

     

    MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION OF EDUCATION WASTAGE

    WAY OUT OF WASTAGE IN UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA

    It is imperative for wastage to be eradicated in the education system of Nigeria, in view of its implications on the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. To achieve this feat, Government should:

    Ø  Orientate Parents/Guardians: Through Print and Electronic Media, parents/guardians and students should be given orientation against premature withdrawal of their children from schools.

    Ø  Fund UBE Programme Adequately: Funding is a critical issue in education provision as only adequate funding could guarantee adequate provision of materials and human resources that are necessary for effective operation of education sub-sector. It is not a gainsaying that allocation to education has been very low in Nigeria, compared to the 26% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) recommended by UNESCO. More funds should thus be injected into education sector to enable it meets its demands such as payment of salaries and allowances, purchase of infrastructures, facilities, among others. Over the years, Education Trust Fund (ETF) (now TET Fund) has been supportive in the funding of education in

    Nigeria, particularly through the construction of buildings for schools. Like Oliver Twist, more need to be done for schools in the area of infrastructures and facilities, to improve schools’ environment. Government should however fortify the ETF so that more revenue could be generated for funding the UBE programme.

    Tackle Corruption in the Education System Decisively: Corruption is an impediment to economic growth and development in Nigeria. It is a menace which has crept into all sectors of the economy including education. Unfortunately, funds for education programmes/activities in Nigeria are often diverted/misappropriated by some individuals. In the Nation of Friday, 7th March, 2008, it was reported that between 2005 and 2006, some States diverted the sum of N3.3 billion out of the N54.7 billion released for the development of primary education. In Nigeria presently, there is a belief that government’s money is national cake. Every individual thus wishes to cut his/her share of the cake which is why the menace is spreading like ‘harmattan fire’ in spite of the attempts at curtailing it. Due to the effect of corruption on education development in Nigeria, Government should be very strict with the way it is handled. Even though there are agencies such as Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent and Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) that tackle cases of corruption, many issues are at stake as far as the handling of corruption cases is concerned. To tackle this menace, government should read the riot act and ensure that those involved in the act of corruption are punished. The anti-corruption agencies should be empowered to deal decisively with corrupt cases discovered. They should also be allowed to be independent and autonomous. Regulations that can stem the tide or prevent corruption should be instituted. Workers in the country should also be paid living wages to discourage corruption in the public service. The immunity clause in the constitution of Nigeria, which prevents certain political office holders from prosecution while in office, should be cancelled. If education funds are spent on educational programmes/activities, there is every possibility that there will be appreciable progress towards achieving Education for All.

    Award Scholarships and Bursaries to Pupils/Students: As much as poverty of parents/guardians is a major factor influencing wastage in Nigeria, government should award scholarships and bursaries to pupils and students of educational institutions, to ameliorate the effect of poverty of their parents/guardians.

    Re-introduce Education Loan for Pupils/Students: Government should also re-introduce education loan for pupils/students to enable poor parents pay the fees and procure needed materials for their children.

     

    Provide Jobs for Graduates of Educational Institutions: Government should provide jobs for outputs of educational institutions and grant loans with reduced interest to graduates that are willing to be self-employed, to curtail the rising trend in unemployment in the country.

    Recruit, Train and Motivate Teachers: In view of the position of teachers in the successful implementation of this programme, more teachers should be recruited and posted to schools, to strengthen the existing stock. Teachers should also be motivated to encourage them towards improved performance. Provision of special allowance for those in the rural areas and difficult terrains, would be a step in the right direction. Government should also sponsor more teachers for seminars, conferences, and workshop, to improve their skills. Schools should not be established at the outskirt of town or city.

    Combat Poverty in the Country: In Nigeria, majority of the citizens are ravaged by poverty. Official statistics show that in 1980, the national poverty incidence was 28.1% of the population, which increased to 65.6% in 1996, and 70% in 2000 (Obadan, 2010). The population that lived below $1.25 a day from 2000 to 2007 was 64.4% (UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2007). Human Poverty Index (HPI) of Nigeria was also found to be 114 in world rank (United Nations Human Development Report, 2009). The issue of poverty has been preventing many parents from enrolling their children in schools and sustaining those enrolled in schools. At present, many children of school-age can be found in the streets of Nigeria, as hawkers, motor-park touts, luggage careers, ‘area boys’, shoe shiners, car washers, and scavengers, among others. The case of ‘Almajiris’ (i.e. street children) in the Northern part of the country depicts a country of wasted generation. Due to poverty of their parents, these children of school-age are left to roam the streets of cities in the North, begging for everything including food, money, and clothes.

    Provide Adequate Facilities and Infrastructures for Schools: Reports (Nwadiani, 1999; Okebukola, 2002) indicate that educational institutions in Nigeria are characterized by inadequacy and decayed infrastructural facilities, in spite of her efforts to achieve education for all citizens in year 2015. The poor and unfriendly learning environment in Nigeria has thus not been encouraging adequate enrolment of children in schools while also encouraging dropping from schools. To combat this problem, government should ensure that more infrastructures and facilities are provided in schools.

    Provide Buses to Convey Pupils/Students to and from Schools: Government should alleviate the suffering of pupils/students by donating buses to schools for the conveyance of 9 pupils/students to school and back to their homes daily.

    Reach out to International Charity Organisations for Assistance: In view of the fact that it is becoming obvious that government cannot alone shoulder the burden of education funding, there is need for government to seek the assistance of international organizations such as World Bank, UNESCO, UNICEF, USAID, to increase their financial commitment to UBE programme and also ensure the programme’s objectives.

    Increased Commitment of Schools’ Administrators: In view of the level of teachers’ indiscipline in schools, schools’ administrators should strive to promote discipline and curb teachers’ excesses. Erring teachers should be disciplined to serve as deterrent to others.

    Introduce Poverty Eradication /Alleviation Measures: In view of the level of poverty and the barrier it constitutes to enrolment in schools, there is need for government to eradicate to eradicate it completely or at worst, initiate poverty alleviation measures to cushion its effects on the citizenry. To this effect, government should provide micro credit loan for traders and businessmen/women so that they can increase the scope of their businesses and make more profit.It is imperative for wastage to be eradicated in the education system of Nigeria, in view of its implications on the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. To achieve this feat, Government should:

    Orientate Parents/Guardians: Through Print and Electronic Media, parents/guardians and students should be given orientation against premature withdrawal of their children from schools.

    Fund UBE Programme Adequately: Funding is a critical issue in education provision as only adequate funding could guarantee adequate provision of materials and human resources that are necessary for effective operation of education sub-sector. It is not a gainsaying that allocation to education has been very low in Nigeria, compared to the 26% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) recommended by UNESCO. More funds should thus be injected into education sector to enable it meets its demands such as payment of salaries and allowances, purchase of infrastructures, facilities, among others. Over the years, Education Trust Fund (ETF) (now TET Fund) has been supportive in the funding of education in

     

    Nigeria, particularly through the construction of buildings for schools. Like Oliver Twist, more need to be done for schools in the area of infrastructures and facilities, to improve schools’ environment. Government should however fortify the ETF so that more revenue could be generated for funding the UBE programme.

    Tackle Corruption in the Education System Decisively: Corruption is an impediment to economic growth and development in Nigeria. It is a menace which has crept into all sectors of the economy including education. Unfortunately, funds for education programmes/activities in Nigeria are often diverted/misappropriated by some individuals. In the Nation of Friday, 7th March, 2008, it was reported that between 2005 and 2006, some States diverted the sum of N3.3 billion out of the N54.7 billion released for the development of primary education. In Nigeria presently, there is a belief that government’s money is national cake. Every individual thus wishes to cut his/her share of the cake which is why the menace is spreading like ‘harmattan fire’ in spite of the attempts at curtailing it. Due to the effect of corruption on education development in Nigeria, Government should be very strict with the way it is handled. Even though there are agencies such as Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent and Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) that tackle cases of corruption, many issues are at stake as far as the handling of corruption cases is concerned. To tackle this menace, government should read the riot act and ensure that those involved in the act of corruption are punished. The anti-corruption agencies should be empowered to deal decisively with corrupt cases discovered. They should also be allowed to be independent and autonomous. Regulations that can stem the tide or prevent corruption should be instituted. Workers in the country should also be paid living wages to discourage corruption in the public service. The immunity clause in the constitution of Nigeria, which prevents certain political office holders from prosecution while in office, should be cancelled. If education funds are spent on educational programmes/activities, there is every possibility that there will be appreciable progress towards achieving Education for All.

    Award Scholarships and Bursaries to Pupils/Students: As much as poverty of parents/guardians is a major factor influencing wastage in Nigeria, government should award scholarships and bursaries to pupils and students of educational institutions, to ameliorate the effect of poverty of their parents/guardians.

    Re-introduce Education Loan for Pupils/Students: Government should also re-introduce education loan for pupils/students to enable poor parents pay the fees and procure needed materials for their children.

     

    Provide Jobs for Graduates of Educational Institutions: Government should provide jobs for outputs of educational institutions and grant loans with reduced interest to graduates that are willing to be self-employed, to curtail the rising trend in unemployment in the country.

    Recruit, Train and Motivate Teachers: In view of the position of teachers in the successful implementation of this programme, more teachers should be recruited and posted to schools, to strengthen the existing stock. Teachers should also be motivated to encourage them towards improved performance. Provision of special allowance for those in the rural areas and difficult terrains, would be a step in the right direction. Government should also sponsor more teachers for seminars, conferences, and workshop, to improve their skills. Schools should not be established at the outskirt of town or city.

    Combat Poverty in the Country: In Nigeria, majority of the citizens are ravaged by poverty. Official statistics show that in 1980, the national poverty incidence was 28.1% of the population, which increased to 65.6% in 1996, and 70% in 2000 (Obadan, 2010). The population that lived below $1.25 a day from 2000 to 2007 was 64.4% (UNESCO Institute of Statistics, 2007). Human Poverty Index (HPI) of Nigeria was also found to be 114 in world rank (United Nations Human Development Report, 2009). The issue of poverty has been preventing many parents from enrolling their children in schools and sustaining those enrolled in schools. At present, many children of school-age can be found in the streets of Nigeria, as hawkers, motor-park touts, luggage careers, ‘area boys’, shoe shiners, car washers, and scavengers, among others. The case of ‘Almajiris’ (i.e. street children) in the Northern part of the country depicts a country of wasted generation. Due to poverty of their parents, these children of school-age are left to roam the streets of cities in the North, begging for everything including food, money, and clothes.

    Provide Adequate Facilities and Infrastructures for Schools: Reports (Nwadiani, 1999; Okebukola, 2002) indicate that educational institutions in Nigeria are characterized by inadequacy and decayed infrastructural facilities, in spite of her efforts to achieve education for all citizens in year 2015. The poor and unfriendly learning environment in Nigeria has thus not been encouraging adequate enrolment of children in schools while also encouraging dropping from schools. To combat this problem, government should ensure that more infrastructures and facilities are provided in schools.

    Provide Buses to Convey Pupils/Students to and from Schools: Government should alleviate the suffering of pupils/students by donating buses to schools for the conveyance of pupils/students to school and back to their homes daily.

    Reach out to International Charity Organisations for Assistance: In view of the fact that it is becoming obvious that government cannot alone shoulder the burden of education funding, there is need for government to seek the assistance of international organizations such as World Bank, UNESCO, UNICEF, USAID, to increase their financial commitment to UBE programme and also ensure the programme’s objectives.

    Increased Commitment of Schools’ Administrators: In view of the level of teachers’ indiscipline in schools, schools’ administrators should strive to promote discipline and curb teachers’ excesses. Erring teachers should be disciplined to serve as deterrent to others.

    Introduce Poverty Eradication /Alleviation Measures: In view of the level of poverty and the barrier it constitutes to enrolment in schools, there is need for government to eradicate to eradicate it completely or at worst, initiate poverty alleviation measures to cushion its effects on the citizenry. To this effect, government should provide micro credit loan for traders and businessmen/women so that they can increase the scope of their businesses and make more profit.

    Recommendations

    The way school leavers roam the streets today is tantamount to educational wastage/economic wastage, thus, it behooves on the government and higher education level managers or chief executives to take the bull by the horn in ensuring that education wastage is reduced to the barest minimum, Based on the foregoing, the following strategies/recommendations were made so that higher education level would

    take its proper course towards accelerating national development:

     

    (a) On the Nature of Educational Inputs-based Wastage

    1. For those who drop-out for financial difficulties, government and philanthropists should provide bursary awards and scholarships to enable them continue with their programmes and also donate instructional materials for them.

     

    2. School administrators and the medical units of the higher education level should ensure effective monitoring of the students’ health so as to detect those who are sick and need medical attention and attend to them on time. By so doing, they would not drop out from school for reasons of ill-health.

    3. Education planners and policy makers should ensure proper education planning techniques so that expansion from the primary level of education due to demand is complemented up to the higher education level to eliminate drop-out, which is wasteful.

     

    4. Students that drop-out because they have learning difficulties should be helped by the school management by organizing extra lessons for them and or entrepreneurial studies to empower them in order to turn them into useful members of the society that would contribute maximally to national development.

     

    5. Higher education level administrators should as a matter of fact, motivate and provide adequate quality human, physical and material resources in their institutions to make their institutions conducive and attractive for teaching and learning and consequently reduce truancy, brain-drain and other effects of

    education wastage.

     

    6. The academic planning unit should closely link students flow with the school

    facilities and equipment.

    7. In this transformation, technological and information-driven era, higher education planners and policymakers should ensure that higher education goals, courses and courses’ curriculum are modified to be in line with science, technical, entrepreneurial and computer areas in order to enhance self-reliance and sustainable national development.

    8. They should ensure that both the human and physical resources are well blended and reconciled through effective planning, organizing, controlling, evaluating and coordinating, to achieve the desired results and reduce education wastage minimally.

    (b) On the Nature of Educational Process- Oriented Wastage

    1. Government and managers of higher education respectively should not allow politics to influence appointments in higher education level, especially administrative heads. Competent and qualified administrators should be appointed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the utilization of the scarce resources of education.

    2. The leaders of higher education level should be democratic in the management of affairs of their institutions to enhance effective participation of all stakeholders in the institution.

    3. Teachers’ performances should be re-examined with a view to improve their quality. Seminars, conferences and workshops should be organized to develop and improve their teaching methods, skills and techniques.

    4. The school administrator should always de-emphasize certificate acquisition of necessary skills so that students after school would fit well into the society towards national development.

    5. Poor facilities and equipment maintenance and handling result in abortion of processes that ought to initiate innovations and inventions. Therefore, the school administrator should effectively supervise, secure and maintain the school facilities and equipment.

    6. The school administrator should also ensure usage of modern educational techniques to encourage acquisition of relevant knowledge and skills.

     

     (c) On the Nature of Educational Outputs-Driven Wastage

    In this changing world, education planners and policy makers should make sure that wastage in education is reduced. They should ensure that at the planning stage of education policies and programmes, they should carefully plan together with the National Manpower Board to employ positive manpower techniques such as taking into cognizance the skills, values, attitudes etc that would be required in the nation’s world of work so that on graduation, the students would be employed or at best be employers of labour and consequently, fit well in the society. This way they would assist in the process of national development.

     

     

    REFERENCES

    Adesina, K, Akinyemi & K. Ajayi (Eds). Nigerian Education: Trends and Issues. Ile Ife: University of Ife Press Ltd. (pp 67 – 75).

     

    Ajayi, I. A., Mbah, G. U. (2008).Trend of Educational Wastage Rate in Ekiti State Public Primary Schools; 2000-2006. Humanity and Social Sciences Journal, 3(2), 97-103.

     

    Aku, E. A. (2008). Issues and challenges with educational and national building in Nigeria. Knowledge Review 17(2), 117-120.

     

    Callaway, A.C. (1967). Dropouts from Nigeria’s Schools. Ibadan, Nigeria: Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) Monograph Series

     

    Emenike, O. (2009). A newspaper article on the need for students to embrace entrepreneurship. Business Day. Wednesday, 13th May; page 1.

     

    Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC.

     

    Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy of Education,4th edition, Lagos: NERDC Press.

     

    Martinez & Munday, F. (1998). 9000 voices student persistence and dropout in further education. Further Education Development Agency Report No 7

     

    Nicholas, B. (2005). Financing higher education, reforms in Europe may provide useful framework for other countries; finance and development. Washington D.C., USA: International Monetary Fund Publications Services. June, 42 (2), 34-37.

     

    National Policy on Education. (2013). Federal Government of Nigeria, NERDC, Abuja.

     

     

    Nwadiani, M. (2000). Economic dimensions of educational planning in Nigeria. Benin City: Monose Amalgamates.

     

    Nwankwo, J. I. (1981). Educational planning, theory and methods. Lahore. Karachi: Izharsons printers.

     

    Obadan, M. I. (2010). Poverty reduction in Nigeria: The way forward. Central Bank of Nigeria Economic & Financial Review, 39(4), 1-31.

    Obemeata, J. O. (1995). Education: an unprofitable industry in Nigeria. Postgraduate School Interdisciplinary Research Discourse, University of Ibadan. Ibadan.

     

    Okebukola, P. (2002). The state of university education in Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: National Universities Commission.

     

    Olowo, O. & Edetanlen, M. E. (2008). Educational reforms in Nigeria: challenges and the way forward. Journal of Educational Studies and Research. 4 (2), 142-149.

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