Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a private Danish humanitarian organisation, founded in 1956. It serves as an umbrella organization for 33 member organizations.
Formed after the Second World War, and in response to the European refugee crises caused by the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956. DRC has been active in large scale humanitarian projects around the world. Through convoy operations DRC was responsible for delivering half of the international humanitarian aid in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the wars of independence in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s.
Nigeria’s north-east is currently experiencing a significant humanitarian crisis, which has resulted from the on-going armed conflict between Boko Haram, the Nigerian military and the Multi-National Task Force in the north-east. An estimated 10 million people are affected by the conflict that has led to a state of emergency being declared in three north-eastern states. High insecurity in the region has made access for humanitarian actors extremely difficult, further exacerbating the situation.
Danish Refugee Council (DRC) and Danish Demining Group (the Armed Violence Reduction unit of DRC) are in the process of setting up operations in the North-East in response to the crisis. DDG is also intending to set up operations in Niger’s Diffa region, which borders North-Eastern Nigeria, and which has been heavily affected by the insecurity resulting from Boko Haram attacks and the regional military response. Given the complexity of the context, DRC/DDG require an indepth conflict analysis which they will use to inform future programming design to ensure their programming is conflict-sensitive. DRC/DDG therefore seek a qualified consultant to carry out a conflict analysis.
The specific objective of the consultancy is to: produce a high-quality conflict analysis report exploring the nature, causes, dynamics and actors involved in conflict in Nigeria’s Borno and Adamawa States. In Nigeria, the conflict analysis will give special attention to how political and security dynamics have changed in the North-East since the recent Presidential election and the lack of investment in the region given increasing extractive industry activity across the country. In this context, issues related to the division of roles and responsibilities between State and national authorities (e.g. NEMA, SEMA), especially in relation to issues of land access and ownership (including community land), water resources and challenges to livelihoods, shall be carefully investigated. The conflict analysis will be used by DRC/DDG to inform the design of its future programming and ensure that it is conflict-sensitive. (see Section 9 below for more details)
DRC/DDG will also make the report available to other humanitarian actors and national and international policy makers. The report will offer preliminary recommendations to ECHO and the EU Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP), focused on the humanitarian response as well as the medium term. Furthermore, the analysis should provide valuable new information and analysis on the role of perceived and actual injustice in current or potential future conflicts in the two countries. The latter will help bridge a knowledge gap on the role of community disenfranchisement in local conflict and national and regional stability.
The consultant is responsible for producing a high quality conflict analysis for Nigeria’s Borno and Adamawa States. The analysis will be based on thorough desk research as well as field research. The consultancy will focus on the following key tasks:
2.1 Carry out desk research to identify and summarise existing key analysis and baseline studies, academic reports and identify national and regional issues that may have an impact on local conflict and security in the target areas.
2.1 Design, plan and remotely oversee the collection of data during field research, which will be carried out by contracted enumerators in the target areas. The field research will collect data using focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII). Through these, local perspectives and up-to-date information will be sought as a supplement to information already available and identified through the desk study. In addition to addressing conflict dynamics, the interviews will collect stakeholder views on past and possible future interventions to improve community safety and manage conflict.
2.3 Following the production of the draft report, validation meetings will be held in the areas to provide feedback to interviewees and enable further refinements of the analysis and recommendations. The field research and validation meetings will be led by two highly experienced conflict specialists of local origin held in Nigeria. The consultant should be willing to participate in some of these meetings, contingent on the security situation in the particular areas
2.4 Produce a draft report, incorporate comments from DRC/DDG and produce a final report according to structure and guidelines agreed with DRC/DDG.
3.1 Desk research.
3.2 Work with DRC/DDG team, including field researchers, to plan and collect data from field, and remotely oversee data collection to ensure highest possible quality of data.
3.3 In collaboration with DRC/DDG field researchers, prepare validation meetings in the target areas and participate in some or all of these, contingent on permitting security situations.
4. KEY DELIVERABLES/OUTPUTS
The main output that the consultant will provide is a consolidated conflict analysis report covering the target areas in Nigeria and Niger as well as wider national and regional dynamics. The report should draw on DDG’s guidelines for conflict analysis. The analysis should be comprehensive but concise and not exceed 50 pages, and include a 5 page executive summary including recommendations for how to ensure future DRC/DDG programming is conflict sensitive. The structure of the report will be agreed with DRC/DDG.
5. DRC/DDG’S RESPONSIBILITIES
DRC/DDG will cover transport to and from necessary meetings in the implementation and research areas. DRC will be responsible for providing the consultant with a safety briefing and the consultant will fall under DRC’s safety umbrella for the duration of the field research in the North-East, which means the consultant will be obliged to adhere to DRC safety management Standard Operating Procedures.
6. REPORTING ARRANGEMENTS
The consultant will report to the DDG Regional Manager, Sharmala Naidoo.
7. DURATION OF ASSIGNMENT
As soon as possible. This consultancy consists of 30 work days. The work plan will be agreed in consultation with DRC/DDG. The following is a proposed allocation of days by task.
Tasks - Output - Anticipated number of days
Desk research - Review of existing data and research identifying conflict issues, causes, actors, dynamics.Complete bibliography. Report format - 9 days
Field research plan - Reach guide for field researchers. Plan for data collection including methodology, target locations, FGDs, KII - 1 day
QA data collection - Regular review of information collected by field researchers. Guidance to field researchers during data collection -3 days spread over the duration of the field research
Write up of findings from each area - Identify key conflict issues, causes, dynamics, actors. Impacts of devolution on conflict. Impacts (existing and potential impacts of extractive industries, and other major developments. Conflict sensitivity Issues for external actors to be aware of -7 days
Validation meeting plan - Structure and plan for validation meetings - 1 day
Draft report - Draft report according to agreed format submitted to DDG for comments. - 7 days
Final report - Final high quality report - 2 days
8. EXPECTED PROFILE OF CONSULTANT
9. FUTURE DRC/DDG PROGRAMMING
In the short-term DRC/DDG’s future programming will consist of a humanitarian response programme that focuses on a mix of protection, cash and/or NFI distribution and WASH support to the most vulnerable IDPs and returnees, and that begins with a comprehensive needs assessment. DRC/DDG’s protection response will involve:
Emergency assistance for the most vulnerable IDPs and returnees
Protection monitoring and provision of individual protection assistance in areas of displacement and return
Community based protection in Yola, Mubi and Uba to support community safety plans and early warning systems to mitigate threats
In the medium term, DRC/DDG will focus on:
Enhancing community safety capacity through the participatory development of community safety plans, facilitation of community safety fora and provision of conflict management/mediation training
Addressing the needs of youth at risk through a mix of activities focused on strengthening their capacities, strengthening the role as mentors/role models and providing them with livelihoods-related skills/opportunities to strengthen their resilience and reduce their vulnerability to engaging in armed violence and extremism
Promoting socio-economic recovery and sustainable livelihoods for returnees to rural areas, displaced in rural, peri-urban and urban areas, at risk youth and extremely vulnerable individuals. This would consist of a mixed package of livelihoods support ranging from basic training and provision of seeds/tools to Cash for Work and multi-purpose cash grants
Creating a safe environment free from the threat of mines, Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) through the provision of mine, ERW and IED risk education to the displaced and humanitarian workers, and support to the government with the development of a national Mine Risk Education strategy
DRC has a Humanitarian Accountability Framework, outlining its global accountability committments. All staff are required to contribute to the achievement of this framework (http://www.drc.dk/HAF.4265.0.html)
Interested consultants who meet the required profile are invited to submit an expression of interest consisting of their CV, a cover letter, sample of work, and a suggested workplan by clicking on the “Apply for position”
The applicants are requested to describe how their skills and experience reflect the ToR, their daily rate and their availability over the coming months in a cover letter (2 pages maximum). Please use subject heading “Ref: Conflict Analysis Consultancy – Nigeria/Niger”. Deadline for submission of requested documents: September 11, 2015.
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